must 英 [məst]   美 [mʌst]


must  英 [məst] 美 [mʌst]

aux. 必须, 


You must study hard! 你必须努力学习!
Then you must be my cousin. 那么你一定是我的远亲了。

  • A must is something that's so important it can't be missed or ignored. When you're taking kayaking lessons, a lifejacket is a must.
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  • aux. 必须,
  • 1. You must study hard!


  • 2. Then you must be my cousin.


  • 3. You must be hungry after all that walking.


  • 4. We must start at once.


  • must (n.1) "new wine," Old English must, from Latin mustum (also source of Old High German, German most, Old French moust, Modern French moût, Spanish, Italian mosto), short for vinum mustum "fresh wine," neuter of mustus "fresh, new, newborn," perhaps literally "wet," and from PIE *mus-to-, from root *meus- "damp" (see moss).
  • must (n.2) "mold," c. 1600, perhaps a back-formation of musty (q.v.).
  • must (n.3) "male elephant frenzy," 1871, from Urdu mast "intoxicated, in rut," from Persian mast, literally "intoxicated," related to Sanskrit matta- "drunk, intoxicated," past participle of madati "boils, bubbles, gets drunk," from PIE root *mad- "wet, moist" (see mast (n.2)).
  • must (n.4) "that which has to be done, seen, or experienced," 1892, from must (v.). As an adjective, "obligatory, indispensable," by 1912, from the noun; must-read is from 1959.
  • must (v.) Old English moste, past tense of motan "have to, be able to," from Proto-Germanic *mot- "ability, leisure (to do something)" (source also of Old Saxon motan "to be obliged to, have to," Old Frisian mota, Middle Low German moten, Dutch moeten, German müssen "to be obliged to," Gothic gamotan "to have room to, to be able to"), perhaps from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Used as present tense from c. 1300, from the custom of using past subjunctive as a moderate or polite form of the present.
must modal verb , noun must musts modal verb / məst ; NAmE məst / / strong form mʌst strong form mʌst / ( negative must not , short form mustn't / ˈmʌsnt ; NAmE ˈmʌsnt / ) 1 used to say that sth is necessary or very important (sometimes involving a rule or a law) (表示必要或很重要)必须 All visitors must report to reception. 所有来宾必须到接待处报到。 Cars must not park in front of the entrance (= it is not allowed). 车辆不得停在入口处。 ( formal) I must ask you not to do that again. 我得劝你别再那样做了。 You mustn't say things like that. 你千万别说那样的话。 I must go to the bank and get some money. 我得上银行取点儿钱。 I must admit (= I feel that I should admit)I was surprised it cost so little. 我得承认,这么便宜,真让我惊讶。 ( especially BrE) Must you always question everything I say? (= it is annoying) 我说什么你都非要提出质疑吗? ‘Do we have to finish this today?’ ‘Yes, you must.’ “我们今天一定得完成这工作吗?”“对,必须完成。” HELP  Note that the negative for the last example is ‘No, you don't have to.’ 注意最后这个示例的否定式是 No, you don't have to。 2 used to say that sth is likely or logical (表示很可能或符合逻辑)一定 You must be hungry after all that walking. 走了这么远的路,你一定饿了吧。 He must have known (= surely he knew)what she wanted. 他一定早已知道她想要什么了。 I'm sorry, she's not here. She must have left already (= that must be the explanation). 抱歉,她不在这儿。准是走了。 3 ( especially BrE) used to recommend that sb does sth because you think it is a good idea (提出建议)应该,得 You simply must read this book. 这本书你可一定要看一看。 We must get together soon for lunch. 我们得马上会合去吃午饭。 note at modal IDIOMS if you ˈmust (do sth) used to say that sb may do sth but you do not really want them to (表示虽不赞同但可允许)如果你一定要(那么做) ‘Can I smoke?’ ‘If you must.’ “我可以抽烟吗?”“好吧,如果你非要的话。” It's from my boyfriend, if you must know. 倘使你一定要知道的话,这是我男朋友给的。 must-see/must-read/must-have, etc. used to tell people that sth is so good or interesting that they should see, read, get it, etc. 必看(或必读、必备等) Sydney is one of the world's must-see cities. 悉尼是世界上的必游城市之一。 The magazine is a must-read in the show business world. 这份杂志是演艺界人士的必读刊物。 more at need n. noun / mʌst ; NAmE mʌst / [usually singular ] ( informal) something that you must do, see, buy, etc. 必须做(或看、买等)的事 His new novel is a must for all lovers of crime fiction. 他的新作是所有犯罪小说爱好者的必读书。 GRAMMAR POINT 语法说明 must / have (got) to / must not / don’t have to Necessity and Obligation 必要和义务 Mustand have (got) toare used in the present to say that something is necessary or should be done. Have tois more common in NAmE,especially in speech. *must 和 have (got) to 用于现在时,表示某事有必要或应该做。have to 较常用于美式英语,尤其是口语中: You must be home by 11 o’clock. 你必须在 11 点之前回家。 I must wash the car tomorrow. 我明天必须冲洗汽车。 I have to collect the children from school at 3 o’clock. 我得在 3 点钟到学校接孩子。 Nurses have to wear a uniform. 护士必须穿制服。 In BrEthere is a difference between them. Mustis used to talk about what the speaker or listener wants, and have (got) toabout rules, laws and other people’s wishes. 在英式英语中,两词之间有差异。must 是基于说话者或听话者的主观意愿,have (got) to 关乎规定、法律和他人的愿望: I must finish this essay today. I'm going out tomorrow. 我今天一定要完成这篇论文,因为我明天要出去。 I have to finish this essay today. We have to hand them in tomorrow. 我今天得完成这篇论文,因为我们明天必须交。 There are no past or future forms of must.To talk about the past you use had toand has had to. *must 无过去或将来形式。表示过去用 had to 和 has had to: I had to wait half an hour for a bus. 我得等半小时的公共汽车。 Will have tois used to talk about the future, or have toif an arrangement has already been made. 说将来的事用 will have to,如果已作好安排亦可用 have to: We’ll have to borrow the money we need. 我们需要的这笔钱只好去借了。 I have to go to the dentist tomorrow. 我明天得去看牙医。 Questions with have toare formed using do. 带有 have to 的疑问句由 do 构成: Do the children have to wear a uniform? 孩子们必须穿制服吗? In negative sentences both must notand don’t have toare used, but with different meanings. Must notis used to tell somebody not to do something. 在否定句中,用 must not 和 don't have to,但二者含义不同。must not 用于告诉某人不要做某事: Passengers must not smoke until the signs have been switched off. 指示灯未熄灭之前乘客不许抽烟。 The short form mustn’tis used especially in BrE. 简约式 mustn't 尤用于英式英语: You mustn’t leave the gate open. 你一定不要让大门敞开着。 Don’t have tois used when it is not necessary to do something. 表示没有必要做某事用 don't have to: You don’t have to pay for the tickets in advance. 你不必预付票款。 She doesn’t have to work at weekends. 她周末不用上班。 ➱ note at need Certainty 肯定 Both mustand have toare used to say that you are certain about something. Have tois the usual verb used in NAmEand this is becoming more frequent in BrEin this meaning. 表示肯定用 must 和 have to 均可。have to 通常用于美式英语中,在英式英语中也越来越常用于此义: He has (got) to be the worst actor on TV! 他无疑是最糟糕的电视演员! ( BrE) This must be the most boring party I’ve ever been to. 这无疑是我参加过的最无聊的聚会。 If you are talking about the past, use must have. 说过去的事用 must have: Your trip must have been fun! 你这次旅行一定很开心吧! must / məst ; NAmE məst / mustn't / ˈmʌsnt ; NAmE ˈmʌsnt /
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